Beauty 101

Skincare and Beauty Glossary

Your ultimate A-Z guide to skincare and beauty terminology.



Acne is a skin condition that affects millions of people around the world. Although it is most commonly associated with puberty, it can affect people of all ages. Acne occurs when the hair follicles become blocked with oil and dead skin cells. This can cause blackheads, whiteheads, and pimples. In severe cases, acne can lead to scars.There are many different treatments for acne, including over-the-counter medications, prescription creams and antibiotics.


Acetone is a common ingredient in nail polish and other beauty products. It is a colorless, liquid solvent that can be used to remove nail polish and other substances from the skin.

Activated Charcoal

Activated charcoal is a skincare ingredient that is derived from carbon-rich materials like wood or bamboo. When these materials are heated, they become activated, which means that they develop a larger surface area and become more porous. This makes them extremely efficient at adsorbing impurities from the skin, including dirt, oil, and toxins. Activated charcoal is often used in face masks and cleansers, as it can help to purify the skin and give it a radiant complexion. However, it is important to note that activated charcoal can also be very drying, so it is important to use it in moderation. When used properly, activated charcoal can be an extremely effective tool for achieving clear, healthy skin.

Active Ingredient

The active ingredient in a skincare product is the ingredient that is primarily responsible for producing the desired effect. For example, if you are using a product to treat acne, the active ingredient will be something that has been shown to be effective at reducing pimples and inflammation. Active ingredients can be found in both over-the-counter and prescription skincare products. Some common active ingredients include retinoids, salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and glycolic acid. When choosing a skincare product, it is important to read the label carefully to ensure that the product contains an appropriate concentration of the active ingredient for your skin type.


Adenosine is a nucleoside, which is a type of molecule that contains both nitrogen and oxygen. It’s found naturally in our cells, and plays an important role in energy production. When adenosine is used in skincare products, it helps to smooth out wrinkles and fine lines. This is because adenosine promotes the production of collagen, which is a protein that gives our skin its structure. In addition, adenosine can help to brighten the skin and reduce inflammation. As a result, it’s often used in anti-aging skincare products.

Aloe Vera

Aloe vera has been used for centuries as a natural healing remedy. The clear gel that is found inside the aloe vera leaves has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, making it an ideal ingredient for skin care products. When applied to the skin, aloe vera gel can help to soothe sunburn, reduce inflammation, and speed up the healing process. Additionally, aloe vera gel is a popular choice for treating acne and other skin conditions. The gel can help to remove dead skin cells, unclog pores, and reduce redness and swelling. Including aloe vera in your skincare routine can help to improve the overall health of your skin.

Alpha-hydroxy Acids (AHAs)

AHA is a chemical exfoliant that is used to remove dead skin layer, de-clog pores and give a more flawless complexion with a more desirable glow. This beauty product is more suitable for dry and sun-damaged skin as it quickly exfoliates the superficial layer. It also helps improve skin moisture for better smoothness and serves a good alternative to sonic cleansing or deep pore cleansing.

Argan Oil

Argan oil is an ingredient that is becoming increasingly popular in hair care products. This oil, which is derived from the nuts of the Argan tree, has a number of benefits for hair. It can help to moisturize and protect the hair, as well as reduce frizz and add shine. Additionally, Argan oil is believed to be beneficial for scalp health, and it can even help to stimulate hair growth. Whether you are looking for a way to add moisture or simply want to give your hair a healthy boost, Argan oil may be worth trying.

Ascorbic acid

Ascorbic acid is a type of Vitamin C, and it can be found in many skincare products. It is known for its antioxidant properties, and it is often used to help protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Ascorbic acid can also help to brighten the skin and even out the tone. In addition, it can help to stimulate collagen production, which can reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Because of its many benefits, ascorbic acid is a popular ingredient in many skincare products, including serums, creams, and masks. However, it is important to note that ascorbic acid can be unstable, so it is often combined with other ingredients to help keep it stable.

Avocado Oil

Avocado oil is a type of oil that is extracted from the flesh of avocados. It is a rich source of nutrients, including vitamin E, potassium, and omega-3 fatty acids. Avocado oil has a wide range of benefits for the skin, including reducing inflammation, moisturizing the skin, and protecting against free radical damage.


Used in sunscreens and other cosmetic products, Avobenzone is an organic compound that absorbs ultraviolet light. It is classified as a UVA filter, meaning that it protects against the long-wave ultraviolet radiation that penetrates the atmosphere and reaches the earth’s surface. Unlike other sunscreen ingredients, which are broken down by sunlight, Avobenzone remains stable in the presence of UV light, making it an effective way to protect skin from the sun’s harmful rays. Although it is one of the most commonly used UV filters in sunscreen products, Avobenzone does have some drawbacks. First, it is not very water-resistant, so it must be reapplied frequently if you are swimming or sweating. Second, it can be unstable when used in combination with other sunscreen ingredients. For these reasons,Avobenzone should be used in conjunction with other sun-protection measures, such as wearing protective clothing and seeking shade during peak hours of sunlight.

Azelaic acid

Azelaic acid is a naturally occurring compound found in whole grain cereals and animal products. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, making it an ideal ingredient for acne-prone skin. Azelaic acid can help to unclog pores, reduce redness and inflammation, and brighten the skin. It is available in both over-the-counter and prescription formulations. When used as directed, azelaic acid is safe for most people. However, those with sensitive skin may experience mild side effects such as burning, stinging, or itching. Azelaic acid is a versatile skincare ingredient that can offer many benefits for those struggling with acne.


BB Cream

BB cream, or blemish balm, is a type of cosmetic that combines moisturizer, foundation, and sunscreen into one product. These BB creams have become a popular beauty product all over the world. Unlike foundation, which can be heavy and cakey, BB cream is light and sheer. It evens out the skin tone without hiding natural features like freckles. In addition, BB cream contains ingredients that nourish and protect the skin, such as antioxidants and SPF.

Benzoyl peroxide

Benzoyl peroxide is a compound that is commonly used in skincare products due to its ability to kill acne-causing bacteria. It works by releasing oxygen radicals that kill the bacteria on the skin, which helps to reduce inflammation and redness. Benzoyl peroxide is available in both over-the-counter and prescription strength formulas, and it is often used as a spot treatment for acne breakouts. In addition, Benzoyl peroxide is sometimes used as a preventative measure for those who are prone to breakouts. For example, some people use Benzoyl peroxide wipes on their face after workouts to help ward off any potential blemishes.

Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA)

BHA is a type of exfoliant that is often used in skincare products. It is a keratolytic agent, meaning that it helps to break down the bonds between dead skin cells. This can help to improve the appearance of the skin by reducing the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and acne. BHA is also an anti-inflammatory agent, which can help to reduce the redness and swelling associated with acne. It is a smaller molecule than Alpha Hydroxy Acid (AHA) so it can penetrate the skin more deeply. BHA can help to unclog pores and exfoliate the skin.


Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that is often used as a dietary supplement. It is also known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including the metabolism of fats and amino acids. Additionally, biotin plays an important role in the health of the skin, hair, and nails. When applied topically, biotin can help to strengthen the nails and promote healthy hair growth. Additionally, biotin-rich products are often used to treat dry skin and scalp conditions. While biotin is available in many over-the-counter skincare products, it is also found naturally in food sources such as eggs, nuts, and legumes.


A blackhead is a type of acne that forms when oil and dead skin cells clog a pores. Blackheads are small, dark-colored bumps that appear on the skin. They are a feature of mild acne, and can also occur on their own. A blackhead is made up of a plug of skin cells and oil that has darkened due to exposure to the air.


Botox is a popular cosmetic treatment that can temporarily reduce the appearance of wrinkles. It is made from a neurotoxin called botulinum toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. When injected into the skin, Botox works by blocking the signals from nerves to muscles, causing the treated muscles to relax. This can help to smooth out wrinkles and give the face a more youthful appearance. Botox injections are most commonly used on the forehead, around the eyes, and on the sides of the mouth. The effects of Botox typically last for three to six months, after which time additional treatments may be necessary to maintain results. While Botox is generally safe and effective, there is always a risk of side effects, such as bruising or swelling at the injection site.

Broad spectrum

Broad spectrum sunscreens provide protection against both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. UVA rays are the main cause of premature skin aging, while UVB rays are the main cause of sunburn. Both types of radiation can increase your risk of skin cancer. Broad spectrum sunscreens are formulations that contain ingredients that protect against both UVA and UVB rays. Many contain titanium dioxide or zinc oxide, which reflect and scatter sunlight away from the skin. Some also contain chemical filters that absorb UV radiation and convert it into heat, which is then dissipated from the body. Broad spectrum sunscreens are the best type to use if you want to protect your skin from both premature aging and cancer.



Ceramides are a type of lipid that helps to keep skin hydrated and plump. They are found naturally in the cell membranes of the skin, and their main function is to keep moisture in and irritants out. Ceramides make up approximately 50% of the lipids in the stratum corneum, or outermost layer of skin. When the skin is healthy, it contains an adequate amount of ceramides. However, ceramide levels can decline with age, exposure to environmental stressors, and certain medical conditions. A decrease in ceramides can lead to dryness, roughness, and a loss of elasticity.

Fortunately, ceramides can be replenished through topical application. Ceramide-rich moisturizers help to fortify the skin barrier and prevent transepidermal water loss. In addition, they can help to soothe irritation and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. For optimal results, look for a skincare product that contains both ceramides and other essential lipids such as cholesterol and fatty acids.

Chemical exfoliant

When it comes to skincare, there are two main types of exfoliants: physical and chemical. Physical exfoliants rely on friction to slough away dead skin cells, while chemical exfoliants use acids or other chemicals to break down the bonds that hold together dead skin cells. Chemical exfoliants can be divided into two further categories: AHA exfoliants and BHA exfoliants. AHA exfoliants, or Alpha Hydroxy Acids, include Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid. These acids work by dissolving the lipids that hold together dead skin cells, resulting in a more uniform and radiant complexion.

BHA exfoliants, or Beta Hydroxy Acids, including Salicylic Acid, are oil-soluble and can penetrate deeper into the pores to help control oil production and prevent blemishes. Chemical exfoliation is a powerful tool for achieving healthy and glowing skin. When used properly, it can help to improve the texture of the skin and promote cell turnover. However, it is important to start slowly with chemical exfoliants and increase the frequency of use gradually, as they can cause irritation if used too often.

Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone)

Coenzyme Q10, also known as Ubiquinone, is a fat-soluble compound that is found naturally in the body. It is involved in the production of energy in cells and is a powerful antioxidant. Coenzyme Q10 levels decline with age, and this has led to interest in using it as an ingredient in sunscreen. The idea is that Coenzyme Q10 can help to protect the skin from damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation.


Collagen partners with elastin in your skin to create a smooth texture, structural integrity, and a healthy youthful appearance. Environmental and genetic aging reduce collagen and elastin over time. Collagen is used in skin care to help to create a veil of moisture on the skin’s surface, which visibly reduces the appearance of wrinkles.

Other names: Atelocollagen, Marine Collagen, Hydrolyzed Collagen

Combination Skin

Combination skin can seem to have two different skin types-normal to dry on the cheeks or in isolated parts of the face, oilier and breakout-prone in the T-Zone. It is the most common skin type, and many products are formulated with the needs of combination skin in mind. Try customizing by using a cleanser for normal to dry skin to avoid stripping the skin of moisture and follow with a lotion for combination to oily skin for lightweight hydration. Spot treating with masks and exfoliants can help achieve healthy balance.


When a product is described as comedogenic, it means that it is likely to clog pores and cause breakouts. Comedogenic ingredients are often oil-based, which is why they are commonly found in makeup and skincare products. However, not all oils are comedogenic. For example, jojoba oil and squalane oil are considered non-comedogenic because they are similar to the skin’s natural sebum. On the other hand, coconut oil and cocoa butter are more likely to cause clogged pores. Therefore, if you are prone to breakouts, it is important to check the ingredients list of products before you buy them.



Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a colorless sugar that is derived from glycerin. When DHA is applied to the skin, it reacts with the amino acids in the dead cells of the stratum corneum, which is the outermost layer of the skin. This reaction creates a browning effect that can be used to darken the skin. DHA is the active ingredient in most self-tanning products, DHA does not provide any protection against UV radiation, so it should not be used as a replacement for sunscreen.


Silicone is derived from sand and is used in cosmetics to provide an aesthetically pleasing formula, especially in serums and moisturizers. There are different grades of silicone, and cosmetics-grade silicones create an elegant, silky, and spreadable texture in skincare products. Silicone is a desirable ingredient because it can deliver the active ingredients in the product and immediately smooth the look of imperfections. Silicones prevent moisture loss and their properties make them porous (allowing the skin to breathe) as well as resistant to air.

Double Cleansing

Double cleansing is a two-step process that is often used in Korean skincare routines. The first step involves using an oil-based cleanser to remove makeup, sunscreen, and other impurities. This is followed by a water-based cleanser to cleanse the skin. The double cleansing method is thought to be more effective than using just one cleanser, as it helps to remove all traces of dirt and debris. Additionally, double cleansing can help to prevent clogged pores and breakouts.

Dry Skin

Dry skin type refers to a skin condition characterized by a lack of natural moisture or oil on the skin’s surface, resulting in skin that feels rough, tight, or flaky. Dry skin can be caused by a variety of factors, such as genetics, environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and aging.

Dry skin may often feel tight after cleansing, so creamy cleansers and/or cleansing oils are a great choice for this skin type. Supplementing with and eating omega-3’s can be helpful for dry skin. Avoid extreme weather conditions, drink plenty of water, and use a humidifier to help ease dry skin concerns. Try layering a hydrating mask on overnight to wake up to well-moisturized, glowing skin and read our skincare guide on how to hydrate dry skin.



Eczema is a skin condition that is characterized by frequent itching, redness, inflammation, cracked and rough skin. It causes rash-like appearances mostly on the arms and behind the knees but they can also appear anywhere on the body. Eczema can be caused by genetics and a trigger, the trigger for eczema will be different for everyone. For some, consumption of certain foods such as nuts and diary, environmental conditions such as smoke, pollen, soap and fragrances and for others, it may be emotional stress. Eczema is not contagious and currently, it has no cure, most people manage it by understanding and avoiding their triggers. However, several remedies are used to support skin health and alleviate the symptoms by applying moisturizer on a daily basis, taking lukewarm baths, wearing cotton fabrics, and using air humidifiers.


An emollient is a substance that softens and soothes the skin. It can be used to treat dry, chapped, or irritated skin. Emollients are available in both over-the-counter and prescription forms. Common emollients include petroleum jelly, mineral oil, and glycerin. Emollients work by trapping moisture in the skin. This helps to hydrate the skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Emollients can be used on both the face and body. They are typically applied after cleansing and before applying sunscreen or makeup. Emollients can be found in a variety of skincare products, including lotions, creams, ointments, and serums.


An emulsifier is a natural or chemical substance that prevents the separation of oil and water. They are one of the most common ingredients in the formulations of cosmetic products such as skin-lotion, make-up, and hair treatments. There are two types of emulsifiers, oil-in-water emulsifiers which keep oil drops packed in water and water-in-oil emulsifiers which ensure water drops are packed in oil. Both help a cosmetic formulation stabilize and prevent the ingredients from separating.


In skincare, an essence is a watery product that is applied to the skin after cleansing and before moisturizing. Essences are typically lightweight and quickly absorbed, making them a good choice for people with oily or combination skin. However, they can be beneficial for all skin types. Essences typically contain active ingredients that help to improve the complexion, such as hyaluronic acid or antioxidants. In addition, they can help to prepare the skin for the absorption of subsequent products.

Essential oils

Essential oils are concentrated extracts taken from the leaves, flowers, seeds, or roots of plants. They can be used for a variety of purposes, including skincare. When used in skincare products, essential oils can provide a number of benefits, such as moisturizing the skin, reducing inflammation, and fighting bacteria. Some of the most popular essential oils used in skincare include lavender, rosemary, and tea tree oil. Essential oils should be used with caution, however, as they can be irritating to the skin. It is important to do a patch test before using any product containing essential oils, and to start with a small amount to see how your skin reacts.


Facial Oils

Facial oils are a type of natural or synthetic oil that is used in skincare. They can be derived from plants, nuts, or seeds, and are often used to moisturize and protect the skin. Facial oils can be used alone or in combination with other products, such as creams or serums. When applied to the skin, they can help to lock in moisture and prevent water loss. Additionally, facial oils can provide a barrier against environmental irritants, such as pollution or wind.

There are a variety of facial oils available on the market, each with different benefits. For instance, jojoba oil is often used to balance oily skin, while rosehip oil is known for its ability to reduce inflammation. When choosing a facial oil, it is important to select one that is suitable for your skin type. Oils can be very beneficial for the skin, but using the wrong one can cause breakouts or irritation. If you are new to using facial oils, it is best to start with a light oil and gradually introduce more into your skincare routine.

Free Radicals

Free radicals are unstable molecules that can damage cells, causing inflammation and premature aging. The body produces free radicals as a response to environmental stressors like pollution and UV exposure. Free radicals can also be generated by unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and eating processed foods. While the body has its own mechanisms for combating free radicals, this repair process can be overwhelmed by too many oxidative stressors. When this happens, free radical damage accumulates, leading to visible signs of aging, such as wrinkles and dark spots.

Fortunately, there are steps you can take to protect yourself from free radicals. This includes using sunscreen to limit UV exposure, eating antioxidant-rich foods, and avoiding smoking and other unhealthy habits. By taking these precautions, you can help reduce your risk of free radical damage and maintain healthy skin.

Fruit Enzymes

Fruit enzymes are a type of exfoliant that helps to break down dead skin cells and reveal new, healthy skin. Enzymes are naturally occurring proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body. Fruit enzymes work by breaking down the bonds that hold dead skin cells together, allowing them to be sloughed off more easily.

Fruit enzymes can be found in a variety of skincare products, including cleansers, toners, and masks. They are often used as a gentle alternative to more harsh exfoliants, such as scrubs or chemical peels.

While fruit enzymes are generally considered safe for most skin types, it is always important to test a small amount of product on your skin before using it over your entire face. This will help to ensure that you do not experience any adverse reactions.

Ferulic acid

Ferulic acid is a plant-based compound that has a variety of benefits for the skin. It is an antioxidant, meaning it helps to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. In addition, ferulic acid helps to stimulate collagen production, which can help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. It also has anti-inflammatory properties, which can help to soothe skin conditions such as acne. Ferulic acid is often found in skincare products that are marketed as anti-aging or skin-repairing. However, it can be beneficial for all skin types, as it helps to promote cell turnover and maintain healthy levels of hydration. In short, ferulic acid is a versatile skincare ingredient that can offer a range of benefits for the skin.

Fragrance Free

When it comes to skincare, the term “fragrance free” can be confusing. In general, it means that the product does not contain any synthetic fragrances. However, it is important to note that some essential oils can also be included under this label. For those with sensitive skin, it is always best to choose products that are truly fragrance free. This ensures that there is no risk of irritation or allergic reactions. However, even products that are labeled as “fragrance free” can still have a subtle scent. This is often due to the inclusion of natural ingredients like essential oils. Nonetheless, fragrance free products are typically the safest choice for those with sensitive skin.



Glycerin is a natural product obtained from vegetable oils or animal fats used for hydrating the outer layer of the skin. It is also a humectant, which is a moisturizing agent that pushes water onto the outer layer of the skin from the deeper levels of the skin. Glycerin is an odorless, colorless and clear liquid with a sweet taste that is used to protect the skin against irritants, accelerate wound-healing and also traps moisture that is drawn into the skin. It also helps increase the skin’s resiliency and youthful look.

Glycolic Acid

Glycolic acid is a type of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that is derived from sugar cane. It is the smallest molecule in the AHA family, which means it can penetrate the skin more deeply than other AHAs. Glycolic acid has a number of benefits for the skin. It helps to exfoliate dead skin cells,reveal brighter skin, and improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. glycolic acid can also help to reduce acne breakouts by unclogging pores and preventing the build-up of dead skin cells. When used regularly, glycolic acid can give the skin a smoother, more radiant appearance.


Green Tea is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory plant extract that serves as a skin barrier and retention which can serve as a viable skincare ingredient. It is used in improving the treatment of acne and oily skin as it helps reduce sebum and aids in fighting bacteria. Green tea also helps in improving the appearance of sun-damaged skin as well as minimizing the signs of ageing. It also helps soothe the skin by reducing inflammation in skin conditions such as eczema. You can find green tea in various cleansers, serums, moisturizers and masks.



Humectants are substances that absorb moisture from the air or underlying layers of the skin and bring them towards the surface of the skin. It is often used to hydrate skin due to its ability to moisturize the outer layer of the skin. They are used in both skin and hair products but mostly skincare products as leave-on moisturizing products such as serums, lotions and creams. Examples of Humectants include aloe vera, shea butter, glycerol and cocoa butter.

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is a substance found naturally in the skin that helps to keep it hydrated and plump. When used in skincare products, it can help to hydrate the skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Hyaluronic acid is used in the skin care industry because it is an excellent moisturizer. It can hold 1000 times its weight in water, making it an ideal ingredient for products that are designed to hydrate the skin. It is also a popular ingredient in anti-aging products because it can help to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by plumping up the skin. Topical hyaluronic acid can help to replenish the body’s supply of this important substance and improve the appearance of the skin.


Hydroquinone is a skin-lightening agent that is used in a variety of over-the-counter and prescription products to treat hyperpigmentation, age spots, and melasma. It works by inhibiting the production of melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. Hydroquinone is available in creams, gels, lotions, and serums. It is typically used twice daily for several weeks or months. Side effects may include mild irritation, erythema, and edema. Hydroquinone products should be used with sunscreen and avoided during pregnancy.


The word hyperpigmentation is used to describe when patches of skin become darker in color than the surrounding area. This occurs when there is an excess of melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. Melanin is produced by melanocytes, which are found in the bottom layer of the epidermis. When these cells are healthy, they produce melanin in a regulated manner. However, when they become damaged or inflamed, they can begin to produce melanin in excess. This can happen as a result of sun damage, certain medications, or even skin conditions like eczema. While hyperpigmentation is usually harmless, it can be a source of insecurity for many people. There are a number of treatments available for hyperpigmentation, including topical creams for pigmentation and laser therapy.


Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)

Intense pulsed light, or IPL, is a type of light therapy that is used to treat a variety of skin conditions. Unlike laser therapy, which uses a single wavelength of light, IPL uses a broad spectrum of wavelengths. This makes it less effective for targeting specific areas, but it also means that it can be used to treat a wider range of conditions. IPL is most commonly used to improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and treat acne. It can also be used to remove unwanted hair from the face, chest, and back. IPL treatments are typically done in a series of sessions spaced several weeks apart, and the number of sessions required will depend on the condition being treated. side effects are typically mild and temporary, and may include redness, swelling, and skin sensitivity.


Jojoba Oil

Jojoba oil is a type of vegetable oil that is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba plant. The oil is then refined and sometimes blended with other oils to create a variety of products. Jojoba oil is often used as an ingredient in skin care products, as it is known to be beneficial for the skin. Jojoba oil can help to moisturize the skin, protect it from damage, and reduce inflammation.



Keratin is a major protein component found in our skin and hair. It is among the key materials making up the outer layer of the human skin which helps in separating us from the environment by creating thin, flexible skin and stronger hair. Lack of keratin in our body can cause a dull appearance with rough and disordered scales which makes our skin tissue vulnerable to damage. Keratin provides a lot of benefits to the skin such as giving it strong moisturizing properties and enhancing the elasticity of the skin. It also helps increase hydration by reducing trans-epidermal moisture loss.

Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris is a condition that causes the skin to produce too much keratin. Keratin is a protein that helps to keep the skin moisturized and protects it from infection. However, when there is too much keratin, it can build up and form hard, scaly bumps on the skin. These bumps are most commonly found on the upper arms, thighs, and cheeks, but they can occur anywhere on the body. Keratosis pilaris is harmless and does not cause any pain or discomfort. However, many people choose to treat it for cosmetic reasons. There are several over-the-counter treatments that can help to reduce the appearance of keratosis pilaris, including moisturizers and exfoliating creams. In severe cases, prescription medications may be necessary. With treatment, keratosis pilaris can be effectively managed and the bumps will eventually go away.

Kojic acid

Kojic acid is a natural compound that is derived from mushrooms. It has been used in Japanese and Chinese skincare products for centuries due to its ability to lighten the skin. Kojic acid works by inhibiting the production of melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its color. This can help to reduce the appearance of dark spots and give the skin a more even tone. In addition, kojic acid is a powerful antioxidant that helps to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. As a result, it can help to reduce the signs of aging and keep the skin looking youthful and radiant. Kojic acid is now widely available in skincare products such as creams, lotions, and serums. It is an effective way to achieve brighter, more even-toned skin.


K-beauty, short for Korean Beauty, refers to a canopy of skincare products which are derived from Korea. Its main focus is developing a glowing “glass skin” which comes as a result of a consistent skincare regimen that focuses on hydrating, toning and clarifying. K-beauty often consists of a lengthy 8 to 12-step skincare routine needed to achieve optimum luminosity. The steps include washing the face with an oil-based cleanser, applying the double cleansing technique, exfoliation, applying toner and then essence which is followed by emulsion (emulsifier) and applying serum. Once this is done, a sheet mask is applied and subsequently, eye cream and moisturizer are applied to complete the whole process.


Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is a hydrating alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), naturally found in dairy products but can also be produced synthetically. This acid is an anti-wrinkle and pigmentation-fighting ingredient, used to exfoliate the skin, reduce dark spots and help improve fine lines on the skin. It also helps increase skin’s cell turnover by stimulating the removal of dead skin cells. Generally recommended to be used at nighttime and slight tingling/stinging may occur especially if you’re introducing it to your skin for the first time. Cleansing and sunscreen in the morning will be extra important to ensure the skin is clean and protected whilst this exfoliation is underway.


Lanolin is an ingredient used to soothe and prevent dry and chapped skin while reestablishing the much-needed moisture to the skin. It is an oily product produced from the shorn wool of a sheep which helps in hydrating the skin from the outside in while preventing the skin pores from clogging. It is also used as a moisturizer and for rejuvenating the skin while reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.


Lipids are a type of molecule that are essential for healthy skin. They help to keep the skin moisturized and provide a barrier against external irritants. Lipids also play a role in repairing damage to the skin barrier. There are several different types of lipids found in the skin, including triglycerides, sterols, and glycerides. In order to maintain healthy skin, it is important to have a balance of all these different types of lipids. When the lipid balance is disrupted, it can lead to dryness, irritation, and other skin problems.



Melanin is a pigment that gives skin its color. It is produced by cells in the skin called melanocytes. Melanin helps to protect the skin from the harmful effects of sunlight. It does this by absorbing ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and converting it into heat, which is then released from the body. The more melanin a person has in their skin, the darker their skin color will be. People with darker skin have more melanin than those with lighter skin. Melanin is also found in the eyes and hair. In the eyes, it helps to absorb light and protects the retina from damage. In hair, it gives it its color.


Melasma is a common skin condition that causes brown or gray patches on the face. The patches usually appear on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin, and they can be small or large. Melasma can affect people of all ages and skin colors, but it is most common in women who are pregnant or taking birth control pills. Melasma is not harmful, but it can be cosmetically displeasing for some. There is no cure for melasma, but there are treatments that can help to lighten the affected area. If you have melasma, you should avoid sun exposure and wear sunscreen every day.

Micellar Water

Micellar Water is a skincare product used for cleansing the skin. It is made up of purified water containing surfactants, a type of chemical structure that attracts dirt and oil. Micellar water is quite effective in removing dirt from the skin and it helps skin hydration due to the presence of glycerin. It can be used for all skin types and it is especially beneficial to sensitive skin due to its non-irritating ingredients. In addition, it can also be used as a makeup remover, cleanser and toner while also creating a base for other skincare regimen steps that follow.


The microbiome is the collection of all the microorganisms that live on or in the human body. This includes bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The skin microbiome is the specific collection of microorganisms that live on the skin. These microorganisms play an important role in maintaining skin health. They help to protect against infection and support the skin’s immune system. The microbiome also helps to keep the skin hydrated and prevents it from becoming too dry or oily. In addition, research has shown that the microbiome can help to reduce inflammation and improve wound healing. Therefore, maintaining a healthy microbiome is essential for keeping the skin healthy and looking its best.


Microdermabrasion is a skin rejuvenation treatment that uses a mechanical abrasion device to exfoliate the top layer of skin. The device above has a diamond head that polishes the skin while suctioning away the dead skin cells. The result is brighter, smoother skin with reduced wrinkles, age spots, and acne scars. Microdermabrasion is a safe and effective alternative to chemical peels and laser resurfacing, and it can be used on all skin types. The treatment is usually performed in a series of six to eight sessions, and each session takes about 30 minutes. There is no downtime after microdermabrasion, and most people report feeling only a mild irritation during the treatment.


Microneedling is a minimally invasive cosmetic procedure that involves the use of fine needles to create tiny punctures in the skin. The purpose of this procedure is to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin, which can help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and scars. Microneedling can be performed using a manual device or an electric device. The manual device consists of a roller with fine needles that is rolled over the skin. The electric device uses small needles that rapidly oscillate back and forth to create the punctures. Microneedling is usually performed on the face, but it can also be used on other areas of the body, such as the neck, chest, and hands. The procedure typically takes 30 minutes to an hour to complete. There is usually no downtime associated with microneedling, although some people may experience temporary redness, swelling, or bruising.


A moisturizer is any lotion or cream that is used for protecting, moisturizing and lubricating the skin. It helps to prevent the skin from dryness, provides protection for sensitive skin, and improves skin tone and texture. Moisturisers also ensures that the skin is clear, softer, smoother, and wrinkle-free. It also helps in rehydrating the top layer of the skin by increasing the wetness of the epidermis. In some cases, moisturizers with sunscreen protect against sun damage.



Niacinamide is a form of vitamin B3 that is found in many skincare products. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Niacinamide also helps to brighten the skin and even out skin tone.

Niacinamide has several benefits for the skin. It can help to improve skin tone and texture, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and help to keep the skin hydrated. Niacinamide can also help to reduce the redness and inflammation associated with acne.

Normal Skin

Normal skin is well-balanced, with no excessively dry or oily areas. pores are small and not visibly clogged. Papules (small bumps) and comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) are usually minimal. There is little or no sensitivity to products. Skin has a healthy color and tone, with a uniform texture. It is neither flaky nor unusually oily.


Oily Skin

Oily skin is a type of skin that produces too much sebum. Sebum is an oily substance that helps to keep the skin moisturized and protected. However, when too much sebum is produced, it can cause the skin to appear greasy and can lead to clogged pores. Oily skin is most common in teenagers and young adults, but it can occur at any age. There are several factors that can contribute to oily skin, including genetics, hormones, and certain medications. While there is no cure for oily skin, there are several ways to manage it. For example, people with oily skin may need to wash their face more than twice a day and use oil-free cosmetics. In addition, regular exfoliation can help to remove excess sebum and dead skin cells.


Oxybenzone is an ingredient found in physical sunscreens used to provide broad-spectrum sun protection from UVA & UVB rays. It performs primarily as a ultraviolet light absorber to prevent the skin damage under sunlight exposure while also preserving and preventing other cosmetic ingredients from deteriorating under the sun.



Parabens are a group of compounds often used as preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products. While they are effective at preventing the growth of bacteria and mold, they have come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns about their safety. Some studies have suggested that parabens may disrupt hormone function, although the evidence is far from conclusive. Nonetheless, many companies have started to reformulate their products to avoid using parabens. If you’re concerned about your exposure to these compounds, you can check the ingredient labels of your products to see if they contain any parabens. Alternatively, you can look for products that are specifically labeled as “paraben-free.”


Peptides are amino acids that are the building blocks of proteins. When applied to the skin, they can help to stimulate collagen production, resulting in firmer, smoother skin. Peptides can also help to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. In addition, they can promote cell turnover and assist in repairing damage from sun exposure and other environmental stresses. There are many different types of peptides, each with its own set of benefits. For best results, it is important to choose a skincare product that contains a blend of different peptides. With regular use, peptides can help to improve the overall appearance of the skin.


Petrolatum, also known as petroleum jelly, is a clear, thick liquid that is insoluble in water. It has a high melting point and is slow to evaporate, which makes it an ideal ingredient for ointments and salves. When used in skincare products, petrolatum forms a barrier on the skin that helps to lock in moisture and protect against environmental damage. It’s often used in lip balms and hair serums, as well as in body lotions and creams for dry skin.


Phloretin is derived from the leaves of apples and other fruits, and it has been shown to have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, Phloretin has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of bacteria that can cause acne. As a result, Phloretin-based products are becoming increasingly popular as a way to improve the health and appearance of skin.


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Retinoids are a class of synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals that are structurally related to vitamin A. These compounds include retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, Retin-A, and isotretinoin. Retinoids have been used for decades to treat a variety of skin conditions, including acne, wrinkles, and sun damage. They work by promoting cell turnover and increasing collagen production. Retinoids are available in both over-the-counter and prescription formulations. The most common side effects include dryness, redness and peeling. more severe side effects can occur with prescription strength retinoids. These include photosensitivity, so increased use of UVA/UVB broad spectrum sunscreen is recommended daily.


Retinol is a type of vitamin A that is commonly used in skincare products. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for the skin, and it plays a role in cell growth and repair. Retinol is a powerful form of vitamin A, and it has been shown to improve the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. It can also help to diminish the appearance of dark spots and acne scars. Retinol is available in a variety of skincare products, including serums, creams, and masks. However, it is important to use retinol products sparingly, as they can cause irritation if used too often. When used as directed, retinol can help to improve the complexion and give the skin a youthful appearance.


Rosacea is a chronic skin condition that causes redness and inflammation on the face. It typically affects the central part of the face, including the nose, cheeks, chin, and forehead. Rosacea can also cause swelling, bumps, and pimples. The exact cause of rosacea is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors, including genetics, food, exercise, and sun damage. Rosacea is a common skin condition that affects many. There is no cure for rosacea, but treatments can help to reduce the symptoms. Common treatments include topical creams and oral medications. In severe cases, laser therapy may be used to help improve the appearance of the skin.

Rosehip Oil

Rosehip oil is a natural oil that is extracted from the seeds of rose bushes. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine, and more recently, it has gained popularity as an ingredient in skincare products. Rosehip oil is rich in nutrients and antioxidants, making it an effective treatment for various skin conditions. It can be used to reduce the appearance of scars, stretch marks, and fine lines. The oil is also beneficial for treating dry skin, eczema, and psoriasis. In addition to its topical use, rosehip oil can also be taken orally to promote overall health. When used in skincare products, rosehip oil can help to improve the complexion and give the skin a youthful glow.


Salicylic Acid (BHA)

Salicylic acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in skincare products. Unlike other AHAs, which work on the surface of the skin, salicylic acid is able to penetrate deeply into pores to dissolve dirt and oil. This deep-cleansing action makes it an effective ingredient for treating acne, as well as for preventing blackheads and whiteheads from forming. In addition to its pore-cleansing abilities, salicylic acid also has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, which can help to soothe irritated skin. When used regularly, products containing salicylic acid can help to keep skin clear and blemish-free.

Sheet Masks

Sheet masks are a type of facial mask that are made from thin sheets of fabric that are soaked in serum or another skin-care product. The mask is then applied to the face and left on for a period of time, typically 15-20 minutes, before being removed. Sheet masks are often used to target specific skin concerns, such as dehydration, dullness, and fine lines and wrinkles. In addition to being an effective way to achieve brighter, more youthful-looking skin, sheet masks can also be a relaxing, enjoyable and a part of your self care routine.


Squalane is a natural, plant-based oil that has many uses in skincare. It can be used to moisturize the skin, protect it from environmental damage, and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Squalane is also non-comedogenic, meaning it won’t clog pores, and it’s gentle enough for use on sensitive skin. You can find squalane in a variety of skincare products, including face oils, serums, and creams. And because it’s so versatile, squalane is perfect for all skin types. Whether you’re looking to boost hydration or fight signs of aging, squalane can help you achieve healthy, beautiful skin.


Sebum is an oily substance that is produced by the sebaceous glands. These glands are found in abundance on the face, neck, chest, and back – areas where we tend to have the most hair follicles. The sebum produced by these glands helps to keep our skin and hair healthy by providing a barrier against external aggressors such as bacteria and pollutants. It also helps to keep our skin hydrated by trapping moisture in the upper layers of the skin. However, when too much sebum is produced, it can lead to problems such as acne. This is because the excess oil can clog pores and trap bacteria, leading to inflammation and breakouts. In some cases, sebum production can be affected by hormones, which is why acne is often more common during puberty. Fortunately, there are many treatments available that can help to manage excess sebum production and keep acne under control.


A serum is a liquid or gel that contains high concentrations of active skin ingredients which has a deeper skin penetration than known moisturizers. It is applied after cleansing but before moisturizing so as to ensure the ingredients are directly applied to the skin. Serums are made up of ingredients that help retain skin moisture but they are not necessarily moisturizers. Face serums target very specific skin concerns like skin wrinkles and anti-aging which make them very effective when used. Serums can be applied once or twice a day depending on the targeted skin concern.

Sensitive skin

Sensitive skin is a common skin type that is often characterised by redness, itchiness and dryness. Skin can become sensitive due to a number of factors, including genetics, environmental conditions and underlying medical conditions. While sensitive skin can be a nuisance, there are a number of things that can be done to manage it. First, it is important to avoid harsh cleansers and exfoliants, as these can strip the skin of its natural oils and irritate already-sensitive skin. Instead, opt for gentle, fragrance-free products that are designed for sensitive skin. Secondly, be sure to wear sunscreen whenever you are exposed to the sun, as sensitive skin is particularly susceptible to sun damage. With a little care and attention, people with sensitive skin can maintain healthy, happy skin.


Silica is a naturally occurring substance that is found in many different types of rocks and minerals. It has a wide range of uses, and it is also a common ingredient in skincare products. Silica is used in skincare products because it has excellent absorption properties. This means that it can help to drew moisture from the skin, keeping it hydrated. Silica can also help to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and it can even out the skin tone. In addition, silica is non-comedogenic, which means that it will not clog pores. As a result, it is an ideal ingredient for use in skincare products.


Silicone is a synthetic compound that is used in many different industries, including the beauty industry. In skincare, silicone is often used as a base for foundation or as an emollient. It’s often used in serums and moisturizers because it helps to fill in fine lines and wrinkles, creating a smoother appearance. Silicone is non-comedogenic, meaning it will not clog pores, and it is also Hypoallergenic. This makes it an ideal ingredient for those with sensitive skin and those with oily or acne-prone skin. In addition, silicone is water-resistant and can help to prolong the wear of makeup.


SPF, or sun protection factor, is a measure of how well a sunscreen will protect your skin from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. The higher the SPF, the more protection you will get. For example, an SPF of 15 will block about 93% of UV rays, while an SPF of 30 will block about 97%. However, it is important to remember that no sunscreen can provide 100% protection. That’s why it’s still important to take other precautions when spending time in the sun, such as wearing hats and clothing that covers your skin. And even if you are using sunscreen with a high SPF, be sure to reapply it every few hours to ensure that you are getting the best possible protection.


Surfactants are special kinds of molecules that have both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (oil-loving) properties. When added to water, they can help to break up oils and dirt, making them ideal for use in skincare products. Common surfactants include Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS). Both of these ingredients are effective at cleansing the skin, but they can also be quite harsh and drying. As a result, they are often used in combination with other ingredients, such as emollients or humectants, to offset their drying effects. When used properly, surfactants can be an important part of any skincare routine.


Tanning Drops

Regular self tanning products work by depositing color onto the surface of the skin. This can often result in an uneven, patchy finish. Tanning drops, on the other hand, are designed to be mixed with your regular moisturizer or body lotion. This creates a more even, natural-looking tan that is less likely to streak or fade. Tanning drops also tend to be more hydrating than regular self tanner, so they’re a good choice for people with dry skin. Another advantage of tanning drops is that you can control the depth of color simply by adjusting the amount of product you use. So if you’re after a subtle sun-kissed look, or a deep bronze glow, tanning drops can help you achieve it.

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide is one of the active ingredients in many sunscreen products. It works by scattering and reflecting ultraviolet (UV) light, which helps to protect the skin from damage. Titanium dioxide is a safe and effective way to reduce UV exposure. In sunscreen, titanium dioxide typically exists in the form of nanoparticles. These are very small particles that are able to provide good coverage while still being invisible on the skin.


In skincare, toner is most commonly used after cleansing the skin and before applying moisturizer. Its purpose is to remove any remaining dirt, oil, and makeup that the cleanser may have missed. In addition, toner can help to restore the skin’s natural pH balance, which can be disrupted by harsh cleansers. Toners also typically contain ingredients that help to soothe and protect the skin.


Vegan Beauty

Vegan beauty products are ones that do not contain any animal-derived ingredients. This includes things like honey, beeswax, collagen, and keratin. Many vegans also choose to avoid using products that have been tested on animals. instead, they prefer to use cruelty-free products.

Vampire Facial

A vampire facial is a type of facial that uses your own blood to help improve your skin. It works by taking a small sample of blood from your arm and then using a special device to spin it down so that only the Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) remains. The PRP is then injected back into your face using a micro-needling device or applied topically. Vampire facials are said to help with a number of skin concerns, including wrinkles, fine lines, dark circles, and even acne scars. Some people also believe that vampire facials can help to stimulate collagen production, resulting in firmer, more youthful-looking skin. While there is no scientific evidence to support these claims, many people report seeing positive results after getting a vampire facial.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A can be found in a variety of skincare products, where it is used to treat a variety of conditions, including acne, wrinkles, and dry skin. This vitamin works by stimulating the production of new skin cells, which helps to repair damage and improve the complexion. It also helps to regulate oil production, preventing the skin from becoming too oily or dry. Additionally, vitamin A has powerful antioxidant properties that help to protect the skin from harmful environmental factors, such as UV radiation and pollution.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant, which means it helps to protect the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause cell damage, leading to premature aging. Vitamin C can help to neutralize free radicals, protecting the skin from their harmful effects. In addition, vitamin C promotes collagen production, which helps to keep the skin firm and elastic. As we age, our bodies produce less collagen, resulting in wrinkles and fine lines. By using products containing vitamin C, we can help to reduce the visible signs of aging. Finally, vitamin C is a natural brightening agent, so it can help to give the skin a healthy glow. Whether you use it in serum form or add it to your favorite moisturizer, vitamin C is an excellent addition to any skincare routine.


Witch Hazel

Witch Hazel is an indigenous shrub used by Native Americans as traditional medicine. It is considered a natural remedy made from the bark and leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana and used for different skin ailments such as skin irritation and inflammation. It is also used to fight acne, bruises, burns and itching. Due to the presence of tannins (a natural compound that helps constrict the skin) it is used to help tighten pores. In addition, tannins also contain antioxidants that help to protect the skin from free radicals.


Zinc Oxide

Zinc oxide is a white natural mineral that is used in many different products, including sunscreen. When applied to the skin, it creates a barrier that helps to reflect and scatter UV rays. Zinc oxide is one of the most effective ingredients for sun protection providing broad spectrum UVA & UVB protection, and it is also safe for use on sensitive skin. In addition, Zinc oxide is also known for its anti-inflammatory properties and can be helpful for treating conditions like acne and eczema. Additionally, it has been shown to boost wound healing and reduce the appearance of scars.